Rofa PMP Notes 4th edition

 General

1.    

If a PMP colleagues offers you exam questions, just refuse to take it and DO NOT report him to the PMI.

2.    

Each subsidiary plan contains a part include identification of this specific knowledge area change control procedures.

3.    

All control thresholds must be exist in the PM plans (Cost, Time, Quality, Risk)- the max. amount of variance that after it a corrective action must be taken.

4.    

Work Authorization System, PMIS { change control system, configuration management system} are an EEF not OPA.

5.    

EEF may be sometimes an opportunity or may be sometimes a threat or constraints.

6.    

EEF: company culture and existing systems= company baggage that comes with the project – outside PM modifications control (exclude manage and develop team).

7.    

Work Authorization system (EEF) ensures that work is started at RIGHT TIME and in proper sequence – only when approved, also defines how work is assigned to people

8.    

Objectives are determined in initiation and refined in planning.

9.    

Audit used in execution (inspect sample), Inspection used in M&C (inspect all, appeared only twice: control quality (attribute) , verify scope (deliverables))

10. 

Scope management plan determines the stability of the project through expected changes.

11. 

Each subsidiary plan contains a part include identification of this specific knowledge area change control procedures.

12. 

"Journey to Abilene" is a situation when we all agree with each other, but the decision doesn't please anyone. The result of this "journey" will be bad for everybody.

13. 

Laissez-faire is a management style: a manager of this type is not directly involved in the work of the team, but manages and consults as necessary, this can be appropriate for highly skilled people.

14. 

If a buyer needs are changes, the buyer may issue a change order to the contract.

15. 

Generally, only the buyer can terminate a contract.

16. 

Recommended corrective or preventive actions can come from the team or stakeholders in addition to the project manager. 

17. 

Schedule is usually cut (by compression), SCOPE NOT.

18. 

Operations and maintenance are considered ongoing activities, not temporary. Therefore, such work is not considered a project or part of a project.

19. 

Scope, time, cost, quality, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction is the most accurate list of constraint.

20. 

if PM report false info, meet him first, before meeting with his boss.

21. 

ROI It is the time when cumulated net income is equal to the investment.

22. 

In project management, the sequence of project phases and phase gates is often referred to as project life cycle.

23. 

lessons learned should NOT document the key persons or group cause delays or failures.

24. 

effective = right time & right format.

25. 

It’s usually the sponsor default for not giving clear directions for project objectives.

26. 

a milestone is a constraint.

27. 

The contract may be considered (serve as) a project charter.

28. 

Output from all 42 processes is stored in PMIS.

29. 

The five areas of expertise in the project management team include

·        

The project management body of knowledge (PMBOK)

·        

Application area knowledge, standards and regulations

·        

Understanding the project environment

·        

General management knowledge and skills

·        

Interpersonal skills

30. 

The management of interpersonal relationships includes 

·        

1) communication 

·        

2) influence 

·        

3) leadership 

·        

4) motivation 

·        

5) negotiation 

·        

6) problem solving

31. 

Chart of accounts: Any numbering system that is used to monitor project costs by category such as labor, supplies, or materials.

32. 

PDCA: plan, do, control, act is a continuous process improvement

33. 

Malcolm Baldrige continuous improvement.

34. 

A project may be started without a contract when: the customer is internal, or the project is in hurry instead LOI (letter of intent).

35. 

Projects are authorized by someone external to the project: project sponsor, or PMO or portfolio steering commute.

36. 

Determining the initial project organization is a project initiating function.

37. 

Product scope description: The documented narrative description of the product scope

38. 

Deliverable: any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase or project.

39. 

We proactively and fully disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest to the appropriate stakeholders. We treat the appearance of conflict of interest as a conflict of interest.

40. 

Joke telling MAY be inappropriate in a diff. culture.

41. 

If you offered a gift from a culture that has giving gifts is custom, consult your management.

42. 

One generally needs to work within the laws and customs of the host country (e.g. wage rates).

43. 

Understanding the personal characteristics of a team member, is not considered to be a part of understanding the cultural and social environment.

44. 

When phases are sequential, the close of a phase ends with some form of transfer or handoff of the work product produced as the phase deliverable. This phase end represents a natural point to reassess the effort underway and to change or terminate the project if necessary. These points are referred to as phase exits, milestones, phase gates, decision gates, stage gates, or kill points.

 

Chapter 2 & 3:

1.     

Payback period: the length of time it takes for the organization to recover its investment in the project before it starts accumulating profit. (the less the better). Discount rate is not taken into account in calculations of Payback Period

2.    

IRR the rate at which the project inflows equal to project out flows (higher the better).

3.    

IRR at which the net present value = 0.

4.    

IRR: The inherent discount rate or investment yield rate produced by the project's deliverables over a pre-defined period of time. الذهب

5.    

IRR: The annualized effective compound return.

6.     

Discount rate: used to assess the uncertainty (risk) in future cash flow.

7.    

PV =  FV  / (1+i)^n                   (PV1-PV2)/ PV1

8.     

Cost Benefit Analysis: Benefit/cost – benefit is revenue not profit.

9.     

Opportunity cost is the value of the project that was not selected.

10.  

Sunk costs: cost that has already been incurred and thus cannot be recovered. (should not be considered when deciding whether to continue on a project or not) – Costs to bring the project to its current state

11.  

Working capital: Assets- liabilities (amount of money available for a company to invest).

12.  

Organizational process assets: process & procedurescorporate Knowledge databaseHistorical Informationlessons learned.

1.    

Project managers in weak matrix organizations acts like (project expeditor, project coordinator, project leader) - with limited authority.

13.  

Functional (( Expeditor (less) THEN coordinator (more) )).

14.  

Project manger exists even in functional organization.

15.  

Project manager reports to manager of project managers in the strong matrix organization.

16.  

Who controls project: FM – FM - Mixed – PM – PM.

17.  

In a matrix organization: the PM can request from the FM to participate in a team member annual performance review.

18.  

Composite is like strong matrix with 2 types of projects running.

19.  

Phase to phase relationship:

20.  

Sequential:

1.    

phase can only start once the previous phase is complete

2.    

The step-by-step nature of this approach reduces uncertainty, but may eliminate options for reducing the schedule.

21.  

Overlapping:

1.    

Phase starts prior to completion of the previous one.

2.    

Example of the schedule compression technique called fast tracking. Overlapping phases may increase risk and rework.

22.  

Iterative:

1.    

Largely undefined, uncertain, or rapidly changing environments such as research.

2.    

It can reduce the ability to provide long term planning.

3.    

Scope is managed by continuously delivering increments of the product and prioritizing requirements.

4.    

Entail having all of the project team members available throughout the project or, at a minimum, for two consecutive phases.

5.    

An iterative phasetophase relationship allows you to begin planning for the next phase before the phase you're working on is completed.

23.  

Overlapping /Fast tracking is where the work of the next phase begins before the phase you're working on is completed.

24.  

Costs and staffing levels are LOWEST early in the life cycle, peak while the project work is underway, and then drop off as the project nears completion.

25.  

Risk is highest early in the project since uncertainty is high about the project’s deliverables, resource needs, and work required.

26.  

Standards are guidelines or a preferred approach (i.e. ISO) and regulations are government-imposed requirements such as laws (i.e. EPA, contract law)

27.  

Kick off meetings are conducted in the start of each phase.

28.  

Company code of conduct contains: business practices, guidelines for situations.

29.  

Stage                                                    Cost and staffing     Uncertainty        Cost of changes 

& Risk &
stakeholder Influence

30.  

Starting the project/ Initiation                                       Low                              High                    Low 

31.  

Organizing and preparing/Planning                               Increases                      Decreases            Increases 

32.  

Carrying out the work/ execution- M&C                        Peaks                           Decreases            Increases 

33.  

Closing the project/closing                                           Decreases                     Low                    High

34.  

The project manager's influence is greatest in the project closing processes.

35.  

Project life cycle can exist independent of product life cycle

36.  

Project life cycle can run concurrently with product life cycle or form part of product life cycle

37.  

A single product life cycle can consist of many multiple Project life cycle

38.  

A product life cycle can completed during A single-phase Project.

39.  

Deliverables are determined in part by the customer, not only by the project sponsor. Deliverables are identified in the project charter.

40.  

Program success is measured by meeting its benefits.

41.  

The number of years is already included in the calculation of NPV. You simply pick the project with the highest NPV.

42.  

Weak matrix organizations tend to experience the least amount of stress during the Closing processes.

 

Integration Management

1.    

Project statement of work- developed by the sponsor as input to develop project charter process:

1.    

Business case.

2.    

Product scope description/ deliverable.

3.    

Strategic plan (organization's strategic goals).

2.     

You are carrying out a project to produce either a service or product. The project work itself is the process and the service or product you produce is the output of this process.

3.     

Project selection committee/ project selection panel /Portfolio managers/ portfolio review board – may include PMO- is responsible for selecting projects.

4.     

They review each project for its return on investment, the value of the project, risks associated with taking on the project, and other attributes of the project.

5.     

The project manager is not typically involved in project selection (i.e. the PM is neither involved nor responsible for conducting neither cost benefit ratio nor any selection technique).

6.     

Change Management plan defines how you will manage changes to the deliverables and resulting documentation.

7.     

Change management plan controls the project to the baseline NOT ONLY how to implement a change.

8.     

Change management plan contains: change control procedures, Board, meeting attendees, authority level, tool to control.

9.     

Scoring model, peer review, murder board, economic methods (PV, NPV, Cost Benefit, IRR, payback period) are comparative methods /benefit measurement methods for selecting a project.

10.  

Constrains optimization / mathematical (programming).

11.  

Whenever a large number of changes occur on a project, it is wise to confirm that the business case (stated in the project charter) is still valid.

16.  

Each; the seller and the buyer create his own project charter.

17.  

When a project deviates significantly from a baseline, the project manager should revisit the risk management process (the problem is incomplete risk identification).

18.  

Most probably, the changes root cause is poor planning or risk identification.

19.  

PMIS contains: change control system and configuration management system.

a.      

Configuration management system: TECHNICAL procedures to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component.

b.      

Change control system: procedures to define how project deliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed and approved.

c.      

Change control system is subset of configuration management system.

d.      

Configuration Control and Change Control are distinct in the following ways:

                                          i.   

Configuration Control addresses the management of the product (or project's deliverables), whereas Change Control addresses the management of the project.

                                         ii.   

Configuration Control manages changes to the product baseline, whereas Change Control manages changes to the project baseline.

                                        iii.   

Configuration Control is applied throughout the lifecycle of the product (concept->design->develop/manufacture->service->dispose), whereas Change Control is applied during the lifecycle of the project subsequent to establishing the project baselines.

20.  

The change management plan directs how changes to the “process” need to be done, while the configuration management plan directs how changes to the “output” need to be done.

21.  

Configuration management involves making sure that everyone is working off the same documents.

22. 

Configuration management validates and improves the project by evaluating the impact of each change.

23.  

Configuration management is set of procedures developed to ensure that project design criteria are met.

24.  

An updated scope statement exists in a change control system, configuration management system (all changes must be documented there).

25.  

The project management plan must be approved by the project sponsor, management, project team.

26.  

The PM must take the resources manager approval for the schedule to guarantee resources availability.

27.  

Any (change request) corrective action/ Preventive action/ Defect repair that will require a change to the project management plan, baselines, procedures and process, charter, contact, statement of work require a formal change request, to be reviewed and approved or rejected as part of perform integrated change control.

28.  

Most project documents are created by the project manager for his or her use during the project, and do not require outside approval for changes (e.g. stakeholder register, Req. trace ability matrix).

29.  

Project charter and change in project charter must be approved by sponsor.

30.  

Change control system includes documentation of the process for making changes.

31.  

Sometimes, certain classifications of changes get automatic approval on a project by PM and do not need a change control board's approval (e.g. in an emergency) using the outlines in the configuration management system.

32.  

The project team might have discretion to approve changes within certain parameters without CCB approval.

33.  

Change control system includes procedures to handle changes by PM (e.g. in an emergency) which is called configuration management system.

34.  

The PM may have the authority to approve a change if it doesn’t require a change in one of the key project documents (listed in the previous point).

35.  

If excessive number of change requests occurs, revalue the business case or consider terminating a project and start a new one with more complete set of requirements.

36.  

One of the ways to decide if a change should be approved is to determine whether the work falls within the project charter, project scope statement, business case, ??.

37.  

Any change that has reserve (previously indentified risk event) should be handled as part of the risk management instead of change management.

38.  

It is not wise to decrease the impact of every change (thus may lead to decrease the overall project success probability).

39.  

Status of the change is recorded in the change control system {{change request status}} (output of perform integrated change control process).

40.  

In exam, assume all projects have change control board.

41.  

Maintain a baseline = update

42.  

Work performance information, about the completion status of the deliverables and what has been accomplished, is collected as part of project execution (direct and manage project execution) and is fed into the performance reporting process.

43.  

Adding milestones is a control feature. (i.e. if a milestone is completed on time and on budget, the project manager has some measure of the status of the project). CONTROL = MEASURE and INSPECT/AUDIT

44.  

Procurement/ project Closure must make sure the actual product of the project meets the requirements for the product.

45.  

PM Directing role occurs while the project management plan is being created (planning).

46.  

PM integration role occurs during project execution.

47.  

Once the project charter is completed (the project is formally authorized), so the cost benefit analysis determines project is worthy.

48. 

Project charter authorizes the start of a new project or a new phase.

49.  

Work must be start in project charter, only if a contract is signed. (or at least letter of intent ) ta2lefa J

50.  

If a product of a project was not used, maybe be that either the project manager did not identify the requirements of all the stakeholders or that the business need for the project changed dramatically and the project manager did not notice.

51.  

Documents are collected throughout the project and archived during the Close Project or Phase process.

52.  

Changes MUST be approved (output from perform integrated change control- output approved), implemented (through direct and manage project- input approved), and validated (control quality – Input approved & output validated).

53.  

Work for each phase must be inspected and accepted before the phase can be closed out.

54.  

There is no need to request a change request if the project is on the planning phase.

55.  

The project charter should be broad enough not to change as the project progress.

56.  

Management plan documents the strategy of managing the project.

57.  

PM plan itself is a deliverable.

58.  

Process configuration (Process flow chart) A graphic depiction of processes, with interfaces identified, used to facilitate analysis.

59.  

Using resources that do not charge against the project is unethical.

60.  

The need for integration is one of the major driving forces for communication in a project.

61.  

The project manager should determine if a change is needed and if the change is beneficial.

62.  

Team assist in recording lessons learned, so they can't be released until the lessons learned are documented and added to the organizational process assets.

63.  

A project is complete when all work, including all project management work (e.g. lessons learned) is complete not just deliverables, is accepted.

64.  

With only the formal acceptance can the project manager be sure the project work is really complete NOT the project.

65.  

ADMINISTRAIVE CLOSURE Closing a project (termination, stops, completion): - NO AUDIT

1.      

Confirm work is done to req.

2.      

Complete procurement closure (can be done even before project closure).

3.      

Gain final deliverable acceptance è project work is done

4.      

Complete financial closure (take my money).

5.      

Hand off product.

6.      

Solicit feedback from the customer.

7.      

Complete final performance reporting.

8.      

Update lesson learned.

9.      

Index & archive records (lessons learned & final report are part of project records).

10.   

Release team.

11.   

Close contract.

66.  

A defect is any deliverable that does not meet its requirements; team members' errors only cause some defects.

67.  

Preliminary scope statement: In Initiation.

68.  

The change control board approves changes only after agreeing on its impact with the customer.

69.  

If a customer needs to make a change, the PM FIRST should request him to submit a request for change before even meet with the team to discuss it.

70.  

Change control systems are a subset of the configuration management system.

71.  

The PM may write the project charter, but must be authorized by someone outside the project.

72.  

Verification. The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation requirement, specification, or imposed condition. It is often an internal process.

73.  

Validation. The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification.

74. 

The process of making a change:


1.       

Prevent the root cause of change.


2.       

Identify the change.


3.       

Look for the change impact. BEFORE create a change request.  ???


4.       

Create the change request (follow the change request procedure).


5.       

Perform integrated change control


1.       

Evaluate/ assess the change.


2.       

Look for options (and bring them to the board if they will take the decision).


3.       

PM take decision on non-updated changes, board change management take the decision (accept or reject) for the other changes. PM/sponsor may be member of change board.


4.       

Update the status of the change in the change control system.


6.       

THEN adjust the required project document.


7.       

THEN communicate the change to the affected stakeholders.


8.       

Manage the project according to the updated documents.

75.  

First document the requested change, then follow the integrated change control process:  ????


1.       

Evaluate the impact.


2.       

Develop options.


3.       

Get the change request approved internally.


4.       

Get customer buy-in.

76.  

WBS is All the work that must be completed for the project NOT All the tangible items that must be delivered to the client

77.  

Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects are already planned. A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of a project.

Scope Management:

1.      

Code of accounts: It is the collection of unique identifiers generally assigned to WBS items.

2.      

WBS is All the work that must be completed for the project NOT All the tangible items that must be delivered to the client

3.      

Requirements gathered in stakeholder analysis need to be quantifiable (nothing like “increase productivity”).

4.      

A scope verification plan is part of the scope management plan.

5.      

Scope management plan determines the stability of the project through expected changes.

6.      

Historical data and lessons learned can be used to collect the requirements for a new project (what requirements were for a similar projects).

7.      

WBS and Affinity Diagram help identify new risks (scope).

8.      

Product analysis/Value analysis/ value engineering: focus on finding less costly way to perform the same work (scope).

9.      

Identifying requirements can lead to identify more.

10.    

Decision Making ways: unanimously , dictatorship, consensus (new diff. agreement), plurality , majority (more than half).

11.    

What is the diff. between stakeholders interests, needs, wants, and expectations?

12.    

Project Scope Statement a narrative description of the project scope, contains:

1)      

Project scope

2)      

Product scope

3)      

Deliverables

4)     

Product acceptance criteria

5)      

Exclusions

6)      

Constraints and assumptions.

16. 

Project charter contains product scope description / deliverable

13.    

Preliminary project scope statement is done during initiation while project scope statement done during planning.

14.    

Customers do not approve the project scope (what you are going to do to complete their requirements); instead, they approve the product scope (their requirements).

15.    

Balancing stakeholder requirements involves prioritizing requirements (by order of importance) and resolving conflicts.

16.    

To resolve competing requirements, accept the requirements that only comply with:

1)   

Business case.

2)   

Project charter.

3)   

Project scope statement.

4)   

Project constraints.

17.    

WBS dictionary contains all information about activity: description, assignee, duration, cost, risk, dependency, assumption, success criteria, due date

                          i.   

The WBS PROOF that an end of resource, fund, time. Because WBS dictionary contains due date/duration/assineeg of a WBS.

                         ii.   

WBS dictionary and work authorization system prevents scope creep = uncontrolled changes. Because of activity description.

                        iii.   

WBS must be iterated after cost, schedule, time, risk, resources. Planning is iterative.

18.    

WBS dictionary can be part of work authorization system (include when to start a task).

19.   

WBS contains full project scope (not only product scope).

20.    

WBS can be used to evaluate impact of other changes on project scope.

21.    

WBS can be used to see if the change request is within the project scope.

22.    

WBS can be structured as an outline, an organizational chart, a fishbone diagram, or other method.

23.    

Verify scope is work with the customer to accept the interim deliverable (or phase deliverable) otherwise make change request to it (accepted deliverable).

24.   

Make a verify scope before moving to another phase.

25.    

The 8/80 hour rule of thumb suggests that, when creating a WBS, you break down the work to work packages of a minimum of 8 hours and a maximum of 80 hours. Applying this rule contributes to more accurate estimates later in project planning. The better choice is to compose it until a managed component.

26.    

Req. traceability matrix helps link project requirements with other requirements or with project objectives to ensure strategic goals are accomplished.

27.    

Req. traceability matrix tracks the requirement through the project life cycle.

28.    

Subdividing deliverables = creating WBS

29.    

Subdividing work packages = decomposition (creating activities).

30.   

Project life cycle à Deliverable à {{control accountà work packages à activities}} WBS

31.    

Each level of a WBS is a smaller segment of the above level.

32.    

A project manager cannot be responsible for the customer's inspection process, only his own.

33.    

Requirements are used to measure the completion of the product of the project (product scope).

34.    

A team member has flexibility at the work package level to make some changes as long as they are within the overall scope of the WBS dictionary.

35.    

Scope verification (Verify Scope process) focuses on customer acceptance of a deliverable. Product verification (Close Procurements process) is focused on making sure all the work is completed satisfactorily.

36.    

Scope verification is monitoring and control, product verification is a closure activity.

37.    

Product analysis used to analyze the product and product objectives and turn them into deliverables (tangible deliverables).

38.    

All stakeholders determine the project requirements. That’s why stakeholder register is input to collect requ.

39.    

The level of uncertainty in scope increases based on the scale of effort required to identify all the scope.

40.    

If you are building a house, the house itself is the product scope. The planning, coordination and management of the work to be done to ensure the product scope is achieved are aspects of project scope management.

41.    

The scope management plan covers both product and project scope.

42.    

A change request is the most effective way of handling the disconnection between what users actually want and what management thinks they want.

43.    

Project scope statement is DOU.

44.    

WBS is not needed in verify scope, instead validated deliverables.

45.    

Performance requirements: what the product of the project should be able to accomplish.

46.    

Requirements, constraints, assumptions exist in project scope statement.

47.    

Code of account identifier: code for each activity define the control account it follows.

48.    

1st appearance Project assumptions in project initiation: project charter, 2nd project assumptions: project scope statement, 3rd  activity assumption: activity attribute, 4th  requirements assumption: requirements documentation.

49.    

Assumptions are not existing in the project charter.

50.    

Quality control is generally performed before scope verification, but these two processes can be performed in parallel.

51.    

Inspection in verify scope measuring, examining, and verifying to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria.

52.    

Impact of scope changes can be determined through WBS NOT scope statement, as WBS dictionary contains many many information.

53.    

It is not common that all deliverables need to be audited.

54.   

We may start execution and not all product requirements are known (completed product req. is done in execution).

55.    

Prototypes (collect requirements tool) support the concept of progressive elaboration because they are used in iterative cycles of mock-up creation, user experimentation, feedback generation, and prototype revision.

56.    

Using subprojects which may be developed by organizations outside the project team is the least likely in creating WBS.

57.    

Requirements management plan: how requirements/product scope will be analyzed, documented, and managed throughout the project.

58.    

Scope management plan: how the project scope will be managed and controlled.

59.    

Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan/scope management plan.

60.   

Completion of the product scope is measured against the product requirements / requirements management plan.

61.    

Requirements documentation:

1)

Business need.

2)

Project objective.

3)

Functional requirements.

4)

Non-functional requirements.

5)

Quality requirements.

6)

Acceptance criteria.

7)

Training requirements.

8)

Requirements assumptions and constraints.

62.    

Do not simply accept project charter or project statement of work, instead first check for stakeholder involvement.

Project Time Management

  1. Rolling wave planning (form of Progressive elaboration) is a tool in define activities.
  2. Unrealistic schedule is due to planning is not performed in iterations.
  3. Most project schedules are compressed by the project manager during project planning.
  4. Rolling wave planning, you plan activities to the detail needed to manage the work only when you start that phase.
  5. Sponsor may impose milestones and include it in the project charter, but generally milestones - during initiation- in the project scope statement (form of schedule constraint). ?
  6. After setting some milestones in the "define activity" process, some milestones may be added during the "sequence activity" or "schedule activity" processes.
  7. While fast track, look at discretionary dependencies.
  8. fast track increase risk and rework.
  9. Sequencing activities may reveal new risks that added to the risk register.
  10. One point estimates should only be used for projects that do not need detailed and reliable schedule.
  11. Bottom up estimation –estimate activity RESOURCES – divide each activity into smaller components in order to estimate it.- Most accurate
  12. Analogous estimation (Top Down): - least accurate

1-   

Look at activities from previous similar activities.

2-   

The degree of similarity affects accuracy.

3-   

Used early in the estimating cycle when there is not much detail known about the activity.

4-   

Uses historical information and expert judgment.

5-   

It is less costly, less time consuming than others, and least accurate.

6-   

For reporting purposes to sponsor or senior management (high level estimation).

  1. The project manager needs more than an analogous (high-level) estimate to determine whether or not the project will meet the schedule.
  2. Analogous project estimate help PM have an understanding about management's expectations of what the project will cost.
  3. The results of parametric estimating can be rule of thumb (total var. = 0.3*dev. Var.)
  4. Parametric estimates don’t require input from team  --  just historical data (3 data points)
  5. PERT = 3 estimates
  6. Activity with the highest variance has the highest risk.
  7. Negative project float means that the estimated completion date is after the desired date.
  8. Options to shorten the schedule:

a.    

Re-estimate – through revisiting risks (look for activity with the most unknowns and revisit risk).

b.    

Compress – through fast track or crash.

c.    

Cut scope.

d.    

Reduce quality.

e.    

Stay to your ground.

f.     

Work overtime.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation (what if scenario analysis) use PERT (3 point estimates).
  2. Resource leveling: keep the number of resources the same and letting time and cost be flexible (e.g. limited availability, limited resources)
  3. Resource leveling: when shared or critical resource are only available at certain times or are only available in limited quantities (one team member assigned to tasks to occur at the same time).
  4. Resource leveling can be applied to any resource (human, equipment, …)
  5. WBS is better than BAR chart = GANT chart as it is a weak planning tool, but a good tool for control (track progress) and reporting to the team as it doesn’t show dependency nor resources.
  6. Logic bar chart: time scaled schedule network diagram showing dependencies among activities.
  7. Milestone chart (form of schedule) = customer and senior management.
  8. Network diagram: shows dependency.
  9. Project team performance is measured against project schedule.
  10. Recommend terminating the project due to schedule problems is part of control schedule.
  11. The only certain impact of a scope change is a schedule change to shorten or lengthen subsequent activities.
  12. Control schedule means looking for the things that are causing changes and influencing the sources of change.
  13. Expected risk did not materialize, may lead to a finish a project earlier.
  14. Critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer duration against the remaining duration of activity chain.
  15. Critical chain is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty. (FS only) (project- feeding – resources buffers).
  16. It is not practical to limit the scope of the changes. Each change request needs to be evaluated as a separate entity.
  17. Total float (or slack) is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without impacting the project completion date.
  18. Total float = EF- ES
  19. Free float: the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of the successor activity.
  20. Free float = ES (of successor) -  EF (current activity)
  21. Free float is usually less than or equal to total float.
  22. Project Float: It's only applicable when there's a duration constraint on the entire project. If the critical path (longest duration) is 17, if the project had a constraint of 20, = the project float = 3.
  23. Project float is a delay of a project that cannot delay the start of the next project.
  24. When options of both free float and total float, we need to go to free float as free float affects immediately following activities.
  25. If an indentified risk occurs, which has an already contingency reserve, the PM (not the sponsor) can approve the change, as it doesn’t change the PMP.
  26. To shorten the duration of a project, shorten the earliest activity on the critical path.
  27. Crashing focus on critical path activity to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost, even if there is a late and risky critical path activity.
  28. Project schedule is a living document reflecting the actual state of the schedule and updated frequently.

1-   

Schedule baseline is a frozen document, revised only as a result of change request.

2-   

To measure schedule performance compare schedule baseline (plan) with the project schedule (actual).

3-   

In the beginning of project execution, the project schedule is the same as schedule baseline.

4-   

Schedule Baseline is an "approved" version of the Project Schedule.

  1. In beginning of execution, project schedule = schedule baseline. As the project schedule is being updated to reflect changes in scope or actual data, the schedule baseline is maintained as the original baseline for post- project evaluation.
  2. More interdependencies on a project increase the need for communication. 
  3. Effort: the number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. (Requirements for effort estimation: The Expert Judgment, Task Complexity, Skill Level, and Expectations).
  4. Duration: the total number of work periods (not including holidays and non-working periods) required to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. (Requirements for Duration estimation: Resource Availability and Resource Capability).
  5. Elapsed Time: Waiting periods (weekends and vacations).
  6. Schedule network analysis: - Develop schedule- tool generates the project schedule, (use critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling) to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. develop schedule before execution and during execution.
  7. Stdev = square root ( ((p-o)/6)^2 +  (p-o)/6)^2 +  (p-o)/6)^2 + …)
  8. Circle = change,   Square = Decision
  9. Milestone list is added to: Project charter, PMP plan, Project scope statement, WBS dictionary à in form of constraint.
  10. when activity is completed even if completed one month later, so PV=EV, SPI =1, SV = 0         
  11. After a project completion, if SV doesn’t equal to 0, so project is terminated.
  12. As the number of critical paths increase, the estimated due completion date become less achievable.
  13. External (government, rules,…) and mandatory = Hard (inherent in the project or product nature or contractually)
  14. Discretionary dependency can make arbitrary total float and limit your scheduling options.
  15. Hammock activity is the one span between two points in the schedule and summarize the detailed activities between them.
  16. The schedule data for the project schedule includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints.
  17. Activity list is not an extension of and a component of the WBS (WBS stops at the work package level).
  18. AOA = ADM
  19. AON = PDM = schedule network = one time estimate
  20. GERT allow for loops and conditions.
  21. Analogs estimation is fort of expert judgment.
  22. Convergence = many to 1 – divergence = 1 activities to many
  23. Calculating free floats and total float are not reasonable for a finished activity.

Cost Management:

  1. Fringe benefits are included in overhead and are part of indirect costs.
  2. ROM +-50 (initiation), definitive Budget -10 à 25 % (planning), Definitive +-10% (-5% à 10%) (planning).
  3. Parametric estimates can be used in estimate cost, or can be used as sanity check in determine budget.
  4. A fixed cost is a non-recurring cost that will not change as the project progresses
  5. Life Cycle Costing includes Acquisition, Operation, Maintenance, and Disposal Costs.
  6. Team budgeted 3000 $ for work performed: EV. EV = BCWP
  7. Team budgeted 2000 $ for work scheduled: PV. PV = BCWS = the cost of the work that has been authorized and budgeted for a WBS component
  8. AC = ACWP.
  9. EAC means anticipated total cost at project completion.
  10. Cost risk is the risk that project costs could go higher than planned. 
  11. Cost variance and schedule variance are negative, but the cost variance is lower than the schedule variance: The project under spent because all work was not completed, but overspent for work that was done.
  12. Labor rates, resources used, and poor communications could all have contributed to the cost overrun. Lag
  13. Funding limit reconciliation concerns reconciling the funds to be spent on the project with funding limits placed on the funding commitments for the project.
  14. Funding limit reconciliation most likely will affect the project schedule, since work will need to be moved to when funds will be available.
  15. Funding limit reconciliation occurs after fast tracking the project.
  16. 1st: Cost aggregation, 2nd: funding limit reconciliation, 3rd: charter constraint reconciliation
  17. Schedule -Resource limit à Resource leveling.
  18. Cost Plus used when degree of uncertainty and require a large investment early in the project life cycle.
  19. It is estimate cost NOT estimate activity cost.
  20. A control account can be placed at any level of the WBS and is used for earned value measurement calculations regarding project costs

 

Quality management plan:

  1. The reason of quality activities is to make sure project meets its objective.
  2. (quality assurance) Process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
  3. Proprietary Quality Management Methodologies (Lean Six Sigma, QFD, CMMI).
  4. Tolerances focus on whether the product is acceptable, while Control Limits focus on whether the process itself is acceptable.
  5. "Quality Control Measurements" results of your inspections (e.g. numbers of defects found, numbers of tests passed).
  6. = 68.25%   • = 95.46%   • = 99.73%   • = 99.99966%
  7. Accuracy: true value, precision: repeated value.
  8. Precision is measured by standard deviation is a chart. (how far from mean, not how far from a true value).
  9. Plan-Do-Check-Act has been defined by SHEWHARD and modified by DEMING.
  10. Joseph Juran: Fitness-for-use, Juran Trilogy (Quality of Design, Quality of Conformance, and Quality Characteristics), Juran Trilogy approach Plan-Improve-Control.
  11. Dr. Genichi Taguchi developed the concept of 'Loss Function' when variation from target increase, loss also increase.
  12. Marginal analysis: don't want to exceed a point beyond (unnecessary quality) which the costs of the improvements aren't offset by the anticipated increase in revenue (sales or profits).
  13. Gold Plating: teams impression of what is valued by the customer, and the customer might not agree.
  14. If a project was gold plated, it is considered to be unsuccessful even if it met the objectives.
  15. Investigate root causes is process analysis/improvement which occurs during perform quality assurance process (Root cause analysis is sort of process analysis).
  16. Quality policy is part of QPM.
  17. The quality management plan does not provide result about how the project quality is doing.
  18. For a good process, the control limits are within the specification limits.
  19. Out of control process à Stop Production !!
  20. Cost benefit analysis in quality management: A business case for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
  21. Quality cost: conformance (appraisal, prevention), non conformance/cost of poor quality (internal, external).
  22. Grade is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics
  23. Cost of quality: conformance (appraisal – prevention), non-conformance (internal – external).
  24. Cost of non quality 12-20 % of sales
  25. Grade definition = characteristics. Quality = functions.
  26. Difference between quality control and quality assurance:
    • Quality assurance is proactive, while Quality control is reactive.
    • Conforming to the requirements and quality standard è Quality control. Conforming to the requirements and standard è Quality Assurance.
    • Quality assurance is concerned with quality processes while quality control is concerned with quality deliverables.
    • Specific work package à quality control. Overall project requirement à Quality assurance.
    • Inspection (Quality control)  keeps errors in the product from reaching the customer. Prevention (Quality Assurance) keeps errors from occurring in the process.
  27. Quality control: evaluation quality against process.
  28. Quality Assurance and Quality Control processes are dependent on each other. The Quality Control receives the input from the Quality Assurance, and in turns gives feedback to the Quality Assurance so that Quality Assurance could validate the process.
  29. Perform Quality Assurance is the process where project managers have the greatest amount of influence over quality.
  30. One of the overarching goals of the Perform Quality Assurance process is to provide a foundation for continuous process improvements.
  31. Quality control is the process responsible for ensuring that approved change requests are implemented correctly, though a tool called “approved change requests review”
  32. In perform quality assurance process, the team should reevaluate whether the quality standards are valid.
  33. Perform Quality Assurance determine if (standards/process is being followed).
  34. Quality Metric: Operational definition (e.g. on-time performance, budget control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage).
  35. ISO is guidelines and implementation differs from one organization to another.
  36. 3 sigma is the most commonly used.
  37. Quality injects risk.
  38. Cause & effect diagram, process or system chart, influence diagram, domino diagram are all diagramming techniques used to identify risk.
  39. Risk categorization tool exist in perform qualitative risk analysis NOT identify risk.
  40. Perform qualitative risk analysis must be redo after identify risk responses.
  41. Hi precession and low accuracy è adjust the process NOT improve it.
  42. Quality audits can confirm the implementation of approved change requests including corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive actions.

 



HR Management plan:

  1. Personal rates exist in HR plan.
  2. Perk = Prerequisite XX Fringe benefits
  3. Herzberg’s: Motivation factors (Achievement, Recognition, Work, Responsibility, Advancement, and Growth). Hygiene factors (Company Policy, Supervision, Good relationship with boss, working conditions, Paycheck, Personal life, Status, Security, and Relationship with co-workers)
  4. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: If workers believe their efforts are going to be successful and rewarded, they will tend to be highly motivated and productive. He suggested that employees are really motivated by goals only when three beliefs are present : Valence: The person wants to achieve the goal, Expectancy: The person believes it's possible to attain the goal, Instrumentality: Instrumentality is a judgment the person makes about whether he or she believes that the reward will be given
  5. David McLelland’s - Achievement Theory (Theory of three needs): this Theory says that people need achievement, power, and affiliation (seeking approval –  to be motivated.
  6. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y: Theory X - Team members are Selfish, Unmotivated, Dislike work (constant supervision is required - 'authoritarian management' style). Theory Y -Naturally motivated to do good work (manager trusts team members - 'participative management' style).
  7. Dr. William Ouchi’s Theory of – “Z Theory”: Productivity can be increased by how well the workers and management get along and trust each other= worker need to be involved in management practice.. Japanese style of management
  8. Contingency Theory (Fred E. Fiedler): In stressful times, a task-oriented leader will be more effective, while in relatively calm times a relationship-oriented leader will function more effectively.
  9. Hersey and Blanchard's Life Cycle Theory: Leadership style must change with the maturity of individual employees. The PM's style should move from Directing, to Coaching, to Supporting, Then to Delegating as the project moves through its life cycle.
  10. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: LOWER needs: Physiological Needs, Security/Safety, Acceptance/Social. HIGHER Needs :Esteem, Self-Actualization/self fulfillment (Cognitive stimulation: Intellectual stimulation, access to knowledge and Aesthetic stimulation: Access to imagery, beauty, and art).
  11. Characteristics of self-actualizing people: Don't deny or avoid facts • Effective perception of reality • Spontaneous in ideas and actions • Creative • Problem-solving • Social interest in other people  • Objective • Trusting • Acceptance of others • Independent with a need for solitude.
  12. Sponsor approves the final project plan and deliverables.
  13. Organization Charts- a way to documenting roles and responsibilities:
    1. Hierarchical-type charts.
    2. Matrix-based charts (RAM –Responsibility Assignment matrix).
    3. Text-oriented formats.
  14. Staffing management Plan includes: 1.Staff acquisitions, 2.Resource calendars/histogram, 3.Staff release plan, 4.Training needs, 5.Recognition & Rewards, 6.Compliance, and 7.Safety.
  15. Resource histograms: shows role, person and time period (Not Dates).
  16. Coach = achieve goals.
  17. Oder of preference: Confronting, compromise, smoothing, forcing, withdrawal.
  18. Problem solving and compromising are considered the two best conflict techniques, in that order. 
  19. Smoothing: down playing the issue, focus on positive, focusing on points of agreement (let's calm done and got the job done).
  20. Compromise is when all parties perform some give-and-take to reach a middle settlement. LOSE LOSE.
  21. Collaborating means working with other people to make sure that their viewpoints and perspectives are taken into account. To get real commitment from every one.
  22. Forcing is the worst ever,
  23. Sources of conflict: schedule, priorities, resources, technical opinions, cost, personalities.
  24. To solve a conflict: Team members involved à PM à Sponsor/functional manager (if the issue is technical one, team members à functional manager).
  25. Organization Charts and Position Descriptions (RBS,OBS, RAM) is a tool in develop human resource plan.
  26. RBS is output from estimate activity resource.
  27. Organizational breakdown structure (Project à Dept à WBS). Resource Breakdown structure (Project à category of resource à WBS).
  28. Problem solving steps:
    1. Define the problem
    2. Analyze the problem
    3. Identify solutions.
    4. Pick a solution.
    5. Implement solution
    6. Validate solution.
  29. In matrix organization, the only power that the PM doesn't have is legitimate power.
  30. Ethnocentric: look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture.
  31. Sponsor may solve problems that behind PM control.
  32. Sponsor may review WBS.
  33. Sponsor may force quality policies.
  34. Technical issues are managed by the team members' managers.
  35. A benchmark analysis provides information about the methods and performance used by other companies and departments.
  36. Removing a team member from a project is drastic action. 
  37. Autocratic: in this manager has power to do whatever he wants. The manager may coach or delegate, but everyone is doing what manager wants them to do.
  38. Team performance issues are senior and functional management's responsibility.
  39. project effectiveness = project performance assessment.
  40. Manage team requires more managerial skills than develop team.
  41. Reward power, Expert power, Referent power, Punishment power (Coercive), and legitimate power (Formal power) - Reward and Expert as the most effective forms of power and Punishment/Coercive as the least effective.
  42. Accountable = sign off for approval =answerable for the satisfactory completion of the task.
  43. Team-building strategies are particularly valuable when team members operate from remote locations without the benefit of face-to-face contact.
  44. One of the most important skills in developing a team environment involves handling project team problems and discussing these as team issues.
    • Discussing ground rules allows team members to discover values that are important to one another.
    • Sponsor role: give fund, provide and clarify scope, monitor progress.
    • Some roles exist in other PMPs rather than the project management plan (quality, risk, communication, quality management plans).
    •  (plan human resource tool): states that organization culture affects how people behave.

 

Communication Management plan:

  1. “Performance reports” are created in the Report Performance process, but they are distributed to the relevant stakeholders through the Distribute Information process. 
  2. Reports help distribute information, not just report on progress. 
  3. Report Performance is a monitoring and controlling process, and is also done during the Close Project or Phase process to report the final project performance.
  4. Report performance: collection and analysis of baseline versus actual data to understand and communicate the project progress and performance as well as to forecast the project results.
  5. Distribute information: making them available through meetings, mails, …
  6. Stakeholder identification levels: interest, expectations, importance and influence. (importance = impact??)
  7. Project reports - Formal and informal project reports describe project status and include lessons learned, issues logs, project closure reports, and outputs from other Knowledge.
  8. informal communication is part of team building.
  9. All project team members share responsibility for enforcing the rules once they are established.
  10. Types of reports: (status-detailed/how stands now, progress report -what have been accomplished, trend-over time)
  11. A change log is used to document changes that occur during a project. Input to manage stakeholder expectation because These changes and their impact to the project in terms of time, cost, and risk, must be communicated to the appropriate stakeholders.
  12. Communication technology takes into account: Urgency of the need for information, Project environment, Duration of the project.
    • Communication management plan takes into account: Reasons for the distribution of information.
    • Communication requirements analysis (tool in plan quality): assess the value of the information to be communicated to stakeholders.
    • Meeting minute’s templates and glossary of terminologies exist in the communication management plan.
    • Manage stakeholder expectation increase the probability of project success by ensuring that the stakeholder understands projects benefits and risks.
    • Project performance appraisal = (as inputs) performance reports + team performance assessment.
    • Project reports è output from distribute information.
    • Performance reports è output from report performance.
    • Increasing support and minimize negative impact is part of manage stakeholder expectations.
    • Para lingual cues are signs, pause, tone of voice or simply silence (85%).
    • WBS can be used as communication tool vertically & horizontally within project and outside project.
    • Issue log/action plan: manage team, manage stakeholder expectations.

 

Risk Management:

  1. Risk Response strategies: Avoid - transfer/Deflect , Mitigate Accept (Negative/Positive) -. If the cost or impact of the other strategies is too greater, acceptance is the best strategy ,,, Exploit - Share – improve- Enhance
  2. Risk response occur before risk, contingency plan à fallback plan after risk.
  3. Any time a risk's impact is greater than planned, additional risk responses are developed and documented.
  4. Assumption analysis is part of risk management process
  5. Contingent Response Strategies Some responses are designed for use only if certain events occur.
  6. residual risks: accepted risks -à constancy plan & fallback plan.
  7. Secondary: risk occur due to implementing a response plan for a main risk.
  8. Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS): It is not breaking down the actual risks, instead, we are breaking down the CATEGORIES of risks that we will evaluate.
  9. Risk tolerance levels of the organization and the stakeholder exists in EEF.
  10. Risk manager , monitor and control risk.
  11. The PMBOK® Guide notes that the probability and impact matrix values are usually set by the organization and are part of the organizational process assets.
  12. A Tornado diagram (special type of Bar chart) where the data categories are listed vertically instead of the standard horizontal presentation, and the categories are ordered (the largest bar appears at the top of the chart, the second largest appears second from the top). This diagram is useful for sensitivity analysis - comparing the relative importance of variables.
  13. Sensitivity Analysis. A quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to help determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the objective being examined when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values. The typical display of results is in the form of a tornado diagram.
  14. Monte carlo simulation takes into account path convergence on Network Diagram.
  15. Simulation techniques are used to predict schedule or cost risks.
  16. Normal and lognormal distributions use mean and standard deviations to quantify risk, which also require gathering the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates.
  17. A negative EMV is a risk cost and a positive EVM is a benefit.
  18. Expected Monetary Value Analysis (EMV): The EMV of OPPORTUNITIES will generally be expressed as POSITIVE VALUES, while those of THREATS will be NEGATIVE. EMV requires a Risk-Neutral assumption, neither risk averse, nor risk seeking. A common type is "Decision Tree Analysis.
  19. Risk responses are identified in both Identify risk and Plan risk responses.
  20. The risk response occurs BEFORE the risk and tries to alter the probability and/or impact while the contingency plan only occurs AFTER the trigger (usually the risk event) and focuses only on changing the impact.
  21. Risk actions are of 3 types (( risk response ----(if fail) à contingency plan ---(if fail)à fallback plan)):

1)   

Risk response:- The risk response determines the strategy for influencing the probability and impact of the risk before it occurs.

                                          i.   

For negative risks, its aim is to eliminate the risk or reduce its impact should it occur. For positive risks, the response tries to increase the probability or impact of the risk.

2)   

For residual risk: Contingent response/contingent plan:- it establishes what activities will take place should a specific event or situation occur. A contingency plan aims to influence the impact of a risk that is occurring.

3)   

For residual risk: Fallback plan:- The fallback plan spells out steps will be taken to recover if the contingency plan fails.

  1. Residual risk is a leftover risk.

1)   

After you’ve implemented a risk response strategy (e.g. mitigation, transfer)—some minor risk might still remain. The contingency reserve is set up to handle situations like this.

2)   

ACCPTED RISKS {{whose probability and impact are such that they're acceptable to the performing organization's level of risk tolerance. They can also be those risks in which there are no reasonable responses for}}.- ACTIVE Acceptance

  1. Contingency reserve is established through the concept of EVM by aggregating the EMV for each known risk.
  2. Contingency reserves are the reserves used for the identified risks occur after the response plans are being taken {{ residual risk }}.
  3. Residual risk and active acceptance risk à has contingency plan à contingency reserve.
  4. Secondary risk à has response plan.
  5. Risk audits (TT in risk control): examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
  6. Reserve analysis (TT in risk control): Reserve analysis compares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining.
  7. work around – plan to deal with passively accepted risks and unknowns risks
  8. Use of non-linear values implies the organization wishes to avoid high- impact threats or exploit high-impact opportunities even if they have relatively low probability. In using non linear values, it is important to understand what each of the numbers mean, their relationship to one another, how they were derived, and the effect they may have on different objectives of the project.
  9.  (or ordinal scale) is the most simple and uses indicators such as low, medium, and high.
  10. A linear scale (or cardinal scale) is numeric, and is commonly used to express the probability of the risk, so a  rating of 1 would imply a very low probability while a rating of 9 would indicate a very high probability.
  11.   A non-linear scale is also numeric, but the intervals between the designations aren't equal (e.g., 1, 2, 4, 8, 16).
  12. Risk audits examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
  13. Project risk that has been occurred can be also considered as issue.
  14. Prototype= mitigate risk *** Insurance = transfer risk ** joint venture = sharing a positive risk ** Enhance = adding more resources to finish earlier ** warranty = ??
  15. The risk of loss that incurred by force majeure is born by seller.
  16. Data gathering (interviews) and representation technique (probability distribution) is a tool in perform quantitative risk analysis.
  17. Representation technique (probability distribution): Distributions graphically display the probability of risk to the project objectives as well as the time or cost elements.
  18. The probability and impact matrix multiplies the probability and impact to determine a risk score. Using this score and a predetermined matrix, you determine if the scores is a high, medium, or low designation.
  19. RBS exist in risk management plan.

 

Procurement Documents:

  1. The complexity and level of detail of the procurement documents should be consistent with the value of, and risks associated with, the planned procurement.
  2. Procurement Documents: the procurement contract with all supporting schedules, requested unapproved contract changes, and approved change requests, seller-developed technical documentation and other wok performance information (deliverables, seller performance reports, warranties, financial documents including invoices and payment records), and the results of contract-related inspections.
  3. Creation of a request for proposal occurs in plan procurement.
  4. Records Management system = for procurement.
  5. Close a procurement/Contract closure: product verification, procurement audit, financial closure, negotiated settlement, file a procurement, final contract performance reporting, updates to records, lessons learned.
  6. Buyers Risk (from Highest to Lowest) - CPFF - T&M - CPIF - FPIF – FFP.
  7. Cost plus transfer risk to buyer.
  8. ---The Time & Materials (T&M) contract is the riskiest one for the BUYER. ??
  9. --- A FIXED price contract is the riskiest sort of contract for the SELLER.
  10. Administer procurement acts like execute the contract and M&C and integrated change control.
  11. Claims/dispute/ appeal: Administration: are Contested changes and potential constructive changes are those requested changes where the buyer and seller cannot reach an agreement on compensation for the change, or cannot agree that a change has occurred.
  12. Claims are documented, processed, monitored, and managed throughout the contract life cycle, If the parties themselves do not resolve a claim, alternative dispute resolution (ADR) typically following procedures established in the contract. Settlement of all claims and disputes through negotiation is the preferred method.
  13. A records management system is used by the project manager to manage contract and procurement documentation and records.
  14. procurement is considered to be complete when …
  15. Close procurement Procurement audit: to identify successes and failures that warrant recognition in other procurements. Conducted by procurement manager, PM (sometime seller).
  16. close procurement Product validation: Validate each and every deliverable or the final deliverable for defects-
  17. Claim administration is in administering procurement in M&C.
  18. Records management system updates is wrong, instead procurement documentation.
  19. Early termination of a contract is a special case of procurement closure that can result from a mutual agreement of both parties, from the default of one party, or for convenience of the buyer if provided for in the contract. The rights and responsibilities of the parties in the event of an early termination are contained in a terminations clause of the contract.
  20. RFP=CR || RFB=Fixed Price || RFQ= cost & material
  21. Make payment to seller is made in administer procurement.

22. 

A source selection criterion is basic minimum criteria the sellers have to be fulfilled to get shortlisted. (e.g. Minimum 5 years of Industry experience), Once you've shortlisted the sellers, you will run "Proposal Evaluation" on them, to decide which seller to award contract to.

  1. A procurement statement of work may be revised and refined as it moves through the procurement process.
  2. PM doesn’t have the authority to change order (only the procurement manager) ---> change order always initiated from the buyer side.
  3. Diff. between breach, default, and waiver:

1)   

A breach (default) occurs when any obligation of the contract is not met. the response to a breach must be to issue a formal letter (not official note) notifying the other party of the breach.

2)   

Waivers are statements saying the rights under the contract may not be waived or modified other than by express agreement. (The act of voluntarily giving up a right or covenant.)

  1. Null and void: No longer valid or enforceable.
  2. The response of breach must be always to issue a letter formally notifying the other party of the breach.
  3. Time is of essence, any delay considered to ma material breach (a breach that cannot continue with).
  4. Main items to negotiate in a contact is : scope, schedule, price.
  5. Only procurement manager has the authority to approve change in contract.
  6. Default letter = default = breach.
  7. Objectives of negotiations:

1)   

Obtain fair & reasonable price.

2)   

Develop good relationship.

  1. The contract should have provision for termination.
  2. Claim is the assertion that the buyer did something that hurt the seller and the seller is asking for compensation.
  3. Constructive changes: changes occur when the buser through action or inaction get in the sellers way to perform the work.
  4. Procurement statement of work basically written by the buyer, however it might be written by seller and the buyer review it.

 

 

 

 

 

Detailed:

Integration Management


         

Subsidiary plans include, but are not limited to:


         

Scope management plan (introduction to Chapter 5),


         

Scope verification plan.


         

Requirements management plan (Section 5.1.3.2) :describes how to identify, analyze, and document requirements as well as how those requirements will be managed and controlled.


         

Schedule management plan (introduction to Chapter 6),


         

Cost management plan (introduction to Chapter 7),


         

Quality management plan (Section 8.1.3.1),


         

Process improvement plan (Section 8.1.3.4),


         

Human resource plan (Section 9.1.3.1),


         

Communications management plan (Section 10.2.3.1),


         

Risk management plan (Section 11.1.3.1), and


·        

Procurement management plan (Section 12.1.3.1).


·        

Configuration management plan (defines those items that are configurable and those items that require formal change control)


·        

Change management plan (components exits in p.114 Rita)


·        

Project Performance Baselines

 

To control changes in the project, the PM should:

o    Obtain final requirements ASAP.

o    Spend enough time in risk planning.

o    Establish time and cost reserve.

o    Have process to control change.

Some of the configuration management activities included in the integrated change control process are as follows:


·        

Configuration identification. Selection and identification of a configuration item provides the basis for which product configuration is defined and verified, products and documents are labeled, changes are managed, and accountability is maintained.


·        

Configuration status accounting. Information is recorded and reported as to when appropriate data about the configuration item should be provided. This information includes a listing of approved configuration identification, status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of approved changes.


·        

Configuration verification and audit. Configuration verification and configuration audits ensure the composition of a project’s configuration items is correct and that corresponding changes are registered, assessed, approved, tracked, and correctly implemented. This ensures the functional requirements defined in the configuration documentation have been met.

WPI, WPM, Performance Reports:

1)   

WPI is gathered as project being executed = raw data, output of direct and manage project execution (e.g. project deliverables, change requests status, risks status, costs incurred).

2)   

WPI used to generate: WPM (e.g. CPI, SPI, CV, SV) and forecasts (e.g. ETC, EAC).

3)   

WPI + WPM + budget forecast = Performance Reports.

4)   

Senior management, customer, sponsor need to look at Performance reports not WPI, nor WPM, nor forecasts.

5)   

WPI used later in M&C, input to most M&C process:

                                          i.   

Perform quality assurance

                                         ii.   

Perform integrated change control

                                        iii.   

Control scope

                                        iv.   

Control schedule

                                         v.   

Control cost

                                        vi.   

Report performance

                                       vii.   

Monitor and control risk

                                      viii.   

Administer procurement

6)   

WPM is input to perform quality control.

7)   

Performance Reports is input to 3 process only Monitor and control process, monitor and control risk, administer procurement.

8)   

 

 

Oliver comments:

  1. understanding of individual characteristics is not part of social and cultural understanding environment
  2. precision hi, accuracy low, adjust process
  3. Lessons learned should be organized during project cycle and at the end.
  4. RACI matrix is not input to product acceptance ( it describes accountabilities in case of product rejection)
  5. facilitator should always give guidance as required without interfering
  6. if stakeholders have diff. opinions, first let them discuss if no result, PM should make priorities
  7. technical inability and poor risk management frequently leads to not meeting customer expectation
  8. It is called cost of conformance (prevention - appraisal) cost of non conformance (failures - internal & external)
  9. team can increase level of maturity from independence to interdependence
  10. Baseline in system configuration is not called delta
  11. high-context cultures means a message has little meaning without an understanding of surrounding context
  12. best way to calculate Profit from internal project is the EVA (economic value added) to the organization taking into account taxes and capital cost. Does the project returns to the organization more value than the initiative costs.
  13. variable sampling includes collection of quantitative data in the degree of conformity for each item of a sample
  14. Individualism is the significance of a person that of a group
  15. Burn rate = 1/CPI
  16. changes on the product can affect warranty clauses, ensure that these clauses are aligned with the final specification
  17. ??? How come PM should not master project culture
  18. a milestone is a significant point in the project with zero duration NOT a fixed or imposed date during the project life cycle
  19. Tornado diagram: comparing the relative importance of variables that have hi degree of uncertainty with those that are more stable
  20. "Modern quality management focus in:

1-   

customer satisfaction

2-   

management responsibility

3-   

prevention over detection

4-   

continuous improvement"

  1. revise the baseline if many number of deltas occur
  2. strange answer
  3. Monitor & control work: ensuring that rejected changes will not getting executed by mistake
  4. Quality documentation is required to perform quality audit
  5. to use a phase gate: the order of phases must be strictly consecutive without overlapping in order to allow for gates
  6. warranty parts may not be replaced for free- but some team members must be available to handel the customer complaints in the warranty period
  7. If a procurement item is readily available from many accepted sellers, focus on the price
  8. diff cultures --> define joint quality policy
  9. CV of project manager is not required with the proposal
  10. you can not close contract if immaterial breach occurred
  11. when it become obvious that the attendees will not reach to jointly accepted decision => postpone the meeting
  12. during closing a project, a team member may be willing to move to a new project- as PM make a smooth transition even if the team member is v imp source
  13. cost estimate is not exist in activity attribute
  14. Do not pay, but follow the chain of command and solicit a decision
  15. calculating a free float and total float is not reasonable for finished activities
  16. CWBS: contract WBS that become part of the contract.
  17. PM team responsibility to obtain customer approval in verifies scope process.
  18. Adminstrative closure procedures don’t include analyzing success or failure.
  19. Administrative closure procedures include approving the second phase.
  20. Statement of work may be developed by the customer.
  21. The probability that the project will finish on time or earlier is 80%.

PMStudy comments:

  1. In the teaming agreement, both the buyer and the seller collectively prepare Contract, Procurement statement of work
  2. A project phase is generally concluded and formally closed with a review of the deliverables to determine completeness and acceptance. A phase-end review can achieve the combined goal of obtaining authorization to close the current phase and start the subsequent one. The end of a phase represents a natural point to reassess the effort underway and to change or terminate the project if necessary. A review of both key deliverables and project performance to date to a) determine if the project should continue into its next phase and b) detect and correct errors cost effectively should be regarded as good practice.
  3. Formal phase completion does not necessarily include authorizing the subsequent phase. For instance, if the risk is deemed to be too great for the project to continue or if the objectives are no longer required, a phase can be closed with the decision to not initiate any other phases.
  4. Triggers = warning signs = risk symptoms.
  5. look at the positives and negatives of their approaches and submit their recommendations, which could be a "middle path".
  6. Performance reports are the output from the Report Performance process and not from Distribute Information process.

  1. To measure disbursements, a spending plan can be used as a cost-baseline.
  2. In EVM: Performance measurement baseline (PMB) is approved integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance.
  3. Pareto & control chart è Quality control.
  1. Contracts may be used for the transference of liability for specified risks to another party.
  2. A fixed price contract transfers risk to the seller if requirements are well defined and seller has the capacity to handle the risk.
  3. no of communication channels increases in exponential proportion when the number of people increases.
  4. Perform Integrated Change Control process includes coordinating changes across the entire project (last step: update documents).
  5. Quality metrics are used in the Perform Quality Assurance and Perform Quality Control processes. 
  6. Common formats for performance reports include bar charts, S-curves, histograms, and tables NOT control chart.
  7. Contingency reserves are needed to bring the risk of overrunning stated project objectives to a level acceptable to the organization {{ the cost contingency to the 75th percentile is $9 million US, or about 22% when compared to the $41 million US sum of the most likely estimates shown}}
  8. Assigning tasks in the start of every week in a small project is not improper management.
  9. Organizational theory: provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave.
  10. The PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct require a project manager to address things with an open mind and accept the cultural and ethical diversity that exists between different countries. So, it is not the responsibility of the project manager to enforce the work-ethics of one`s own country on the people of another country. 
  11. Rectification of a minor flaw can lead to delay of 2 months in the project: so, the project manager should first inform the sponsor and customer before rectification of the flaw. 
  12. the work authorization system is not created to Prevent team members from starting the work without your permission instead Clarify and initiate the work for each work package
  13. Quality audit is structured review to determine whether product activities comply with organizational and project policies.
  14. A procurement audit is a structured review of the procurement process originating from Plan Procurements process through Administer Procurements process.
  15. Monitor and Control Risks is the process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks (risk reassessment), and evaluating risk process effectiveness(risk audit) throughout the project. 
  16. Monitor & Control Risk: Diff between risk reassessment and risk audit:

1-   

Risk audits examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.

2-   

Risk reassessment identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.

  1. Achievement - power- affiliation
  2. In execution process will work defined be completed and all the specifications of your project be satisfied NOT in project closure.
  3. Taking corrective or preventive action to control the project performance is part of monitor and control.
  4. Preventive action: A documented direction to perform an activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks. (Monitor and control)
  5. Collecting work performance information about the completion status of the deliverables and what has been accomplished is part of project execution and fed into performance reports.
  6. Do not report your partner if he asked you to use your version of the software.
  7. Fait accompli = non negotiable = done deal
  8. Control chart is not a reporting format.
  9. Payback period is the number of years required to get back the initial investment in the project.
  10. Variance analysis is an after-the-fact look at what caused a difference between the baseline and the actual performance / determine the causes of variance.
  11. Unresolved issues can be a major source of conflict and project delays. 
  12. Influence diagram Graphical representations of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes
  13. Determining and delivering the required levels of quality for the project is the responsibility of project manager and project management team.
  14. Work breakdown structure helps in providing a basis for time and cost estimates.
  15. Even if you will refrain from a conflict of interest situation you should notify the interested parties.
  16. We should refrain from a conflict of interest NOT tell the management and let them do what they see.
  17. Kill point = phase end review.
  18. If you been handover to a project that over budget and behind schedule, DO NOT Bring the project on schedule and then inform the management about the status of the project UNETHICAL.
  19. The ability to influence cost is greatest at the early stages of the project, making early scope definition critical. 
  20. Select potential sellers occurs in conduct procurement.

Exam central comments:

  1. Quality assurance can be conducted throughout the project but should be conducted at regular intervals throughout the project NOT only in the execution phase.
  2. Project performance should be set by the stakeholders not predicted by the project manager.

78.  

4 types of project closure:

a.      

Starvation:  withdrawal of life support.

b.      

Addition: added to a parent company project.

c.      

Integration: assets absorbed by a parent company project.

d.      

Extinction: reach to normal closing either by success of failure

  1. List of stakeholders names, positions, locations, potential influence on the project impact, and level of interest è stakeholder analysis matrix.
  2. Prioritize the change requests is the PM Job.
  3. In a matrix organization, the functional manager does administrative functions for his staff.
  4. Level 1 in the WBS may be deliverable, project phase, subprojects, or combinations.
  5. Deming said that quality is 85 % of time due to management problem.
  6. Depreciation cost is added to estimate activity cost not determine budget.
 
  1. Negotiations mainly on scope- schedule – price.
  2. EMV is used to calculate the benefit or cost (+ve or –ve) of a positive of negative risk.
  3. We report unethical or illegal conduct to the appropriate management – without giving the criminal 48 Hours !!.
  4. Initiation phase can kickoff the project.
  5. Corrective action similar to Rework.
  6. The biggest disadvantage or parametric estimate that the solution may not scale = the estimation that may work for a large projects may not work for a small project.
  7. Undocumented scope creep = Gold plating.
  8.  you discovered that the change request is an enhancement, this doesn’t mean that he is really 
  9. Blanchcards: situational continuum
  10. Senior management must be consulted when changing one of the triple constraints (change request that affect the triple constraints).
  11. Customer is the one who has the greatest influence in project scope changes {{ cause he is the one who will pay }}.
  12. Shannon weaver model is a communication model.
  13. Agile = iterative model
  14. The most important thing in a needed change is impact of change NOT the need for chanage.
  15. Project is baselined == all required stakeholders signed off it.
  16. FF = (AB) B cannot finish before A finishes
  17. It is the sender responsibility that the message correctly received.
  18. If you finish a project within budget, time, on specifications. However the customer is not happy. CLOSE the procurement. 
  19. Effective communication means that the information is provided in the right format, at the right time, and with the right impact. Efficient communication means providing only the information that is needed.
  20. Learning curve estimation uses the principal that the cost per unit will decrease as more units of work are manufactured.
  21. Statistical Sampling is the standard technique that is used to test only a small sample of products instead of all the products manufactured.
  22.  Continuous small improvements is part of Kaizen theory
  23. Cost budget = project funding requirements
  24. 0/50/100 – Work Package completion. No credit until 50% complete. No additional credit until 100% complete.
cnppmp's picture

Very Exhaustive...

CNP

 

Very useful notes... 

I have not seen such a detailed LL and detailed. Its seems you were realy tracking our progress while your preparation. And thats very Nice of you 

 Admirable that you are giving back. To pass this exam, you need to know all of these things. Passion, committment, & hard work are essential. 

 Admirable that you are giving back. To pass this exam, you need to know all of these things. Passion, committment, & hard work are essential. 

Excellent Notes for reference. Truly this wlll help all the participants.  Definitely must read notes before entering into Exam Hall

Congratulations on your certification.

Regards

Bhavesh

 

 

naeem.farooqui's picture

Please make available the pdf version.


Because it is not visible perfectly.


Some programming error displays before each point.