Why Time Management-ITTO-Templates?

PMBOK page 135: Time Management Tools & Techniques:

Generally Templates are Orgnizational Process Assets. But, in Time Management, they are grouped under Tools and Techniques along with Decomposition, Rolling Wave Planning & Expert Judgment.

Can anyone explain the reason behind this?



Templates are tools

Like tools- spanners, screw drivers etc of your 2wheelers

But you keep them in Dikki /Tool Box/ Tool Kit as an OPA.

see the definition of TOOL and TEMPLATE in Glossary.

After All Tools and Techniques are preserved somewhere, in organization.

All kept in OPA.

See the defination of - Techniques - these are procedures, software tools etc., now see the OPA-2.4.3

Like PMIS is a tool, but it is consider as a part of EEF, whereas EEF is an  INPUT to all processes.

If you are confusing again PMIS has all automated tools, and this will not be a part of OPA, ----or mutually exclusive---- it is wrong concept.

whatever is in PMIS -- may also be in OPA. or you can say mutually independent

you can understand like that --- blood isa part of each organ in body.

but blood belongs to heart & circulatory system

Organ belongs to a separate organary system.

somewhere I read that all 42 processes are kept in PMIS, perhaps in Rajesh notes.

But asper pmbok, it is part of OPA, and PMIS is limited to the project management where as OPA is broader as organizational.

MR. ANAND KL and other prominent could inlighen this matter more.

warm regards


I agree with Mr. Pawar, and the analogy given by Pawar is very easy to understand. And PMBOK glossary clearly tells a Template is a TOOL, something Tangible that can be used in performing an activity to produce a result.

OPA need not always be Tangible, i.e, you may not use it directly but you may refer it. For example: Standard procedure, Policies, historical information,  Lessons learned, guideline, Manuals ... these are all in OPA, but are reffered. There will also be reusable assets in OPA which can be used directly.

To extend on Mr. Pawar example, to use a Jack in the tool box (from OPA asset), you might refer a Manual. While Jack becomes a  TOOL (like template) as it is tangible and used directly, Manual is referred  and hence an input from OPA.

Hope this helps. Thank you Mr. Pawar for the wonderful analogy. Hope my extension on that is valid.


Anand KL, PMP