ITTO difficulty


I know this question has been asked lot of times but i feel its worth repeating. Best way to understand ITTO's. (Im not saying memorize). What i would like is, if everyone can share some sort of tricks they have used to understand and probably come up with some notes at the end. This will help all of us and future PMP aspirants. There might be this information already but i couldnt find, so pls direct m there in that case.

So please kindly share any map diagrams, learning tips for ITTO's.


+1. I'm facing a bit diffculty in memorizing the ITTOs.

Dear Future PMPS –  I am copying my artcile from the past, hope this helps!!

This approach is very much useful for those who are already planning to remember Page 43 of PMBOK. If you are NOT planning to remember Page 43 of PMBOK, please do not waste your time to understand my approach. Let me get to my approach without much waste of time.

As part of my PMP preparation, I realized that, one of challenging areas for me was to remember the common ITTOs. I didn’t have problem remembering distinct ITTOs which are very unique to its process.

Did you realize that following are very common ITTO?


C- Change Requests ,D-Project Documents Updates (Output),E –EEF (Input),O – OPA (Input) ,P – Project management plan updates , Ue – EEF Updates , Uo – OPA Updates ,X – Expert judgment 


Can you remember CDOPUo?

Ok, now take a look page 43 and write down ‘CDOPUO’ in Control Scope, Control Cost, Control Schedule, Quality Control. You will be surprised to know that, for all these process groups, CDOPUo   represents common inputs, tools and outputs.  .

Just remembering one phrase of CDOPUo, you mastered the common ITTos for 4 Knowledge areas.

How about CDEPOX?.

You place CDEPOX in Direct and Execution, Monitor and Control and Integrated Change Control. (As an exception, change request is Input for Integrated Change Control instead of Output).

Do you feel good now?. Just remembering two phrases, you remember as many as 40 ITTOS.

If you like this approach take a look at attached dump sheet in PM Prep cast website.

Good Luck and Best wishes.



I like this approach as well. I know we dont need to memorize but still i would like to have a mind map and then see the logical flow. In this way its easier to undrstand and se the complete picture.


Can you provide the link to dumpshet you are mntioning from PM Prepcast website.I could find.

Thanks everyone for their valuable input and hopefully to get some more.



the trick is to understand:

-what feeds into a process

-the tools you use in that process

-what does that process produce


i definately DID NOT memorize ITTO's, nor did i try

there are instances where all processes in a process group will always have a particular output, in other cases an tool may only be used in one process. Taking note of these consistencies helped me to understand the big picture.

Pracice ITTO's in BrainBok as a habit of study, slowly you will find  you understand the ITTO's without memorization. On the exam you really just need to understand what is being asked and then place that scenario or question in context to the 42 processes (in the matrix, visually speaking). Knowing where you are at, and the types of ITTO's in that area, will bring you VERY FAR in the direction of the correct answer.




I agree with bhpepper. There is no point in memorizing. Try to digest the process and visualize how it flows. Try creating a mind map of ITTOs and repeatedly revise the map. Over time, you will not only remember what the ITTOs are for each process, you will also start to understand why a certain input is required for a process. In the exam, for example, you could get questions like what comes first - "Estimate Activity Cost" or "Develop HR Plan" process? The answer is Plan HR, eventhough the order per the ITTO chart is otherwise. The reason is HR Plan is an input to cost estimation process.  You have to see the big picture and reviewing the ITTOs and thinking how they tie with one another will help you solve most questions quickly. I hope I could help.




Adela's picture

I have been through this difficult moment before my friend suggest me to download a pretty good ITTO app from appstore. It costs me $2 in my country.

It also gives you the advice on make up your own ITTO mnemonics . I actually bought their study kit that comes with a huge question bank with lots of good questions. 

My suggestion to memorise ITTOs is that you have to understand the knowledges/logics behind 47 processes. For example always ask yourself why/when/how/what you need these during this process. Also as long as you play the ITTO game, you realize that 'updates' always happen on the output area... so on so forth... 


hope this helps

rkraneis's picture

PMP Students,

I can teach you my method for Mastering ITTO.  It's a free video on my website.

Everyone wants to learn ITTO.  I understand.  I remember spreading ITTO note cards on the floor of one of the rooms in my house.  I could "stomp" on ITTO but not learn them.

Then I realized I should just learn the ITTO I didn't know :)

As a PMP I have a free YouTube video channel with mostly PMP videos.  But also, on my Richard Kraneis website I have a Mastering ITTO Blog Post.  The blog post and the video are free.

Visit Mastering ITTO on my website, I think it will help all of you.

Richard Kraneis, PMP
Chicago, IL  USA
Richard Kraneis discusses Mastering ITTO
Richard's PMP Videos on YouTube