Conflicts, Team Development stages, Negotiations, Motivation models

 Conflict Styles

 

 

Avoiding

The person seeks to avoid or postpone having to deal with conflict (often until more facts can be gathered, or one party has had time to think it through)

Accommodating

The person seeks to maintain the relationship with others by subordinating his own position

Competing

The person seeks to impose his will or solution on others, despite their misgivings or differing opinions

Compromising

The persons seeks to find a solution to the conflict by having each of the parties make concessions

Collaborating

The person seeks to find a solution by involving all parties affected by the conflict.

 

Resolving Conflicts

 

Forcing

Win-Lose -- One way to resolve a conflict is for one party to force the other to agree. This is the kind of conflict resolution that happens when one person has power over another and exercises it.

Smoothing

Loss – Loss -- Temporary – Smoothing minimizes the disagreement by making differences seem less important. This kind of resolution occurs when either one of the persons disagreeing or another person in the group attempts to make the differences smaller than they seem.

Compromise

Loss – Loss -- Compromise is similar to smoothing. Using this type of conflict resolution, each of the parties gives up something to reach a common ground. In this resolution the parties themselves agree to give up on some points but not others. In doing this they reach a common agreement that has relatively few points of disagreement.

Problem Solving / Confronting

Best Solution – Win-Win

Withdrawal

Yield – Lose -- Temporary

 

 

Team Decisions

 

Individual

Very Low Team Involvement – One person actually makes the decision

Minority

Low Team Involvement – A few of those involved in a situation meet to consider the matter and make a decision, and this decision is binding for all concerned 

Majority

Low Team Involvement - More than half of those involved in the situation make a decision, and it is binding for all concerned.

Consensus

Very high Team involvement - Consensus is needed for most important decisions.

Concordance

Complete and absolute - Concordance (100% commitment) is needed for decisions of critical importance.

 

Motivation Models

 

Needs

People are motivated to satisfy perceived needs

 

MASLOW

 CLAYTON ALDERFER

 

Suggested that needs can be classified into 3 broad categories

 

Existence

Needs include basic survival needs, both physiological and Safety needs

Relatedness

Needs include all aspects of interpersonal relationships – Social Needs

Growth

Needs include self-esteem and achievement of potential

 

 

Expectancy

If a person does not believe it is possible to do something, or that no consequence of value will occur to the person if that something is done, then the person will not be motivated to act in the first place.

Equity

People wanted to be treated fairly, and will be motivated to restore a feeling of equity if they are not treated fairly 

Herzberg’s Theory

  • Hygiene agents – These are not motivate people, absence of these will demotivate performance – Job security, Paycheck, clean & safe working conditions, sense of belonging, civil working relationships etc.,
  • Motivating Agents – These are the elements that motivate the people to perform – Responsibility, appreciation of work, recognition, chance to excel, education, other opportunities other than financial rewards.  

Theory X

Managers think that, the workers are lazy, and no trust on them, need micromanagement

Theory Y

Self-led, motivated, and can accomplish new tasks proactively

Theory Z

Participative management style. Workers will be motivated by sense of commitment, opportunity, and advancement. Workers in this organization learn the business by moving to through the ranks of the company

 

 

Negotiations

 

Persuading

Based on logic or fact; can be measured objectively

Bridging

Offering of support; disclosing vulnerability

Disengaging

Legitimate tactic; use to buy time or de-fuse tense situations

Asserting

Based on personal beliefs, values and attitudes; very subjective

Attractive

Making others share positive feelings, envision desirable outcomes

Avoiding

Not legitimate; used when we are not comfortable about negotiating the issues

 

Team Development Stages

 

Forming

When first formed, a team is just a group of individuals who have been assigned to work together. Individuals tend to focus on their own goals

Storming

As teams begin actual work, they often go through a period of conflict. This is natural: members are sorting out their roles and differences in opinion on work issues

Norming

In the Norming Stage, the group starts to function as a team. Group norms are established and peer pressure tends to keep individual behaviors within expectations. Team member roles are clear and the team agrees on the right decision-making technique for a given situation. Real work tasks are attacked and the group agrees on approaches and processes. Things get done in a more definable, repeatable, predictable way.

Performing

Successful teams move on to the Performing Stage when their effort becomes focused. Members are dedicated to achieving team goals. The team responds to opportunities quickly. Leadership, responsibility and recognition are typically shared among team members. Members leverage the diversity of their team mates, and play to their individual strengths. A high level of trust and trustworthiness abounds.

Adjourning / Mourning

Some teams, such as project teams and parallel teams, have a scheduled end. When the team has realized its goal, it is disbanded. This final phase is called the Adjourning or Mourning Stage. When a team's work is finished, members may feel a sense of loss or disillusionment that affects their ability to be effective in their next assignment.

 

Maslow Diagram - Wikipedia.org

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